L'water it is necessary for the carrying out of all the metabolic processes of the organism; in particular it allows: digestion; the solution and transport of nutrients, enzymes, hormones throughout the body; the elimination of all waste products through the kidneys, lungs and skin; to keep the body temperature hot by means of its own evaporation through the epidermis; the acid-base balance of the organism.
Water also enters into the formation of many physiological fluids, such as ocular, synovial, cerebro-spinal, amniotic fluids and those of secretion of the digestive, respiratory and urinary systems.
Il daily requirement of water in a normal individual is approximately 2,5 liters. this quantity, taken both by drinking and through food, balances the leaks that occur through urine, faeces, breathing and sweating.
Under normal conditions, a good habit is to drink one to one and a half liters of water a day (six to eight glasses), distributed throughout the day, making sure that it is not too cold, and limiting its introduction. during meals, so as not to excessively dilute the gastric juices.
The daily water requirement it is related to factors such as age, physical activity, nutrition and climate.
However, there are situations in which a greater intake of water becomes important: when you follow a diet that is too rich in proteins, to facilitate the elimination of waste; in the feeding of infants, who have a greater need for it; in the diet of the elderly, who have less thirst, which leads them to drink little; when living in very hot and humid environments; in case of high fever, persistent vomiting and diarrhea, or when there is elimination of an excessive amount of urine; in case of therapy with drugs or remedies that promote diuresis.
In some cases, however, it is important to limit the consumption of water; for example, in the case of heart failure or kidney disease, water can accumulate in the various tissues, because the body is unable to eliminate the excess amount.
All water drinking they contain minerals, but by law they can be denominated minerals only those that have the following requisites: that they originate from an aquifer or an underground reservoir; which are endowed with healthy properties, due to the presence of particular mineral salts and trace elements; that are already drinkable at the source and are bottled as they flow from the source.
With the addition gas makes water more palatable and improves its organoleptic characteristics: carbonated waters quench your thirst better, because the bubbles anesthetize the nerve endings of the mouth and cause stomach dilation with apparent satiety; they also perform a slight bacteriostatic activity. These waters are contraindicated in subjects suffering from stomach acid, gastritis or ulcers and intestinal fermantione.
Features organoleptic and the content of the different mineral waters are basic for making considerations on their use in the different ages and physiological and pathological conditions of life.