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Harm of an Unhealthy Diet
Eating disorders have taken on global dimensions; in fact, if in the most industrialized nations people continue to suffer from too many excesses, a wide range of people accuse important nutritional deficiencies. In general, therefore, we can say that humanity is entirely sick from a food point of view.
Unfortunately, problems related to an inadequate diet never appear in the short term with some sort of cause-and-effect mechanism (except for problems such as allergies, intolerances and food poisoning). On the contrary, when these diseases make their onset - generally after several years - it is already too late, because we can no longer recover an optimal state of health but, at the most, maintain it and avoid worsening the situation further (thanks to appropriate drugs, associated with a correct lifestyle and a healthy diet).
Characteristics of a Proper Diet
A diet can be defined as correct if it is satisfactory from a quantitative point of view, that is to say if it guarantees the supply of energy and of every single nutrient in the right quantities.
The diet, however, must also be qualitatively balanced; it is not enough, in fact, to guarantee the right quantities of nutrients, because, even if correct from a quantitative point of view, a diet of this type could still be inadequate.
Let's see a simple example to better understand these concepts: the recommended ration of carbohydrates or carbohydrates is established for the population of your country between 55 and 65% of the total daily calories; some individuals may find themselves in a position to satisfy their needs by respecting exactly this percentage, but still follow an incorrect diet. This is the case, for example, of those who do not respect the right proportion between simple carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.) and complex carbohydrates, reducing the latter in favor of the former. A diet perpetually unbalanced in this sense (therefore rich in sugary drinks, sweets, etc.) can create, in the long run, a pathological condition called diabetes. Therefore, if on the one hand we must ensure that 55-65% of total calories have a carbohydrate origin, on the other hand we will ensure that no more than 10-12% derives from simple carbohydrates. Type 2 diabetes, the onset of which is strongly conditioned - as well as by genetic factors - by motor inactivity, obesity and the aforementioned eating disorders, is an example of an effectively controllable disease that cannot be cured.
A "perfect" diet must also be: adequately distributed, balanced, varied and optimal.
Properly distributed diet
In a diet, the quantity of various nutrients is not the only important parameter; if, for example, we satisfy the caloric needs in a single daily meal, the enormous quantity of food taken all at once dilates the stomach walls, gradually increases the gastric capacity and with it the sensation of appetite; it also predisposes to overweight and overloads the digestive system. A correct caloric breakdown requires that the daily food ration is distributed over five main meals, of which three are the most important (breakfast, lunch and dinner).
Breakfast should provide about 20% of total calories, lunch and dinner 35% each, while the remaining 10% should be covered by the afternoon and morning snacks.
It is not important to establish only the quantity of calories we need, but it is necessary to distribute them in a balanced way among the various nutrients; in this regard, the guidelines for the population of your country recommend taking 10-12% of calories in the form of proteins, 25-30% in the form of fats and 55-65% in the form of carbohydrates. The proteins, then, must also be correctly distributed according to the source: 1/3 of them should have a vegetable origin, while 2/3 an animal origin.
Fatty acids must be divided into 55% monounsaturated, 20% polyunsaturated (at least 12 grams per day) and 25% saturated. As for the recommended ration of essential fatty acids, we recommend a minimum intake of 2% of the total daily calories for ω6 (linoleic acid) and 0.5-1% of the total daily calories for ω3 (alpha-linolenic acid) ).
The cholesterol intake must be less than 300 mg / day, while trans fatty acids must not exceed 5 grams per day (other authors impose lower limits, in the order of two grams / day).
Perfect diet: second part "