Low Sodium Diet Example

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Joe Dispenza
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Premise

The following indications are for informational purposes EXCLUSIVELY and are not intended to replace the opinion of professionals such as a doctor, nutritionist or dietician, whose intervention is necessary for the prescription and composition of PERSONALIZED food therapies.


Sodium and hypertension

Excess sodium is the most important nutritional factor involved in the increase of blood pressure and in the onset of hypertension in predisposed individuals. High blood pressure is also favored by other predisposing factors such as: diseases (e.g. kidney failure), genetic and / or family predisposition, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, alcoholism, hyperglycemia, diet low in potassium and ω ?? 3 fatty acids , diet rich in saturated fatty acids etc.
In addition to representing a pathology in its own right, hypertension is a risk factor for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, a pathological complex that dramatically increases the risk of ischemic heart disease and / or cerebral vascular syndrome.


NB. The association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension significantly increases its harmfulness to the body.

Low-sodium diet

The low-sodium diet is a food therapy characterized by a low sodium intake, aimed at reducing blood pressure in subjects characterized by arterial hypertension.

Originally, the low-sodium diet had as its main feature the limitation of foods containing added sodium or table salt and the abolition of the so-called "discretionary" salt (the one added at home). Today, the low-sodium diet is a much more complex eating pattern; first of all, the low-sodium diet is often also a low-calorie diet, this is due to the fact that many cases of hypertension recognize a multiple etiology, among which the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue (overweight and obesity) with an increase in the Mass Index stands out Body (> BMI or BMI, often in the abdominal area).
Furthermore, the low-sodium diet can be corrected on the basis of other existing pathologies, in order to make it effective also in restoring the other compromised metabolic parameters; in many cases, the low-sodium diet thus evolves into an anti-metabolic syndrome diet.



The most useful and frequent measures to be used in the composition of an "anti-metabolic syndrome" low-sodium diet are:

  1. Elimination of discretionary salt and all foods containing added sodium
  2. Right energy intake based on body composition
  3. Moderation of the glycemic load and index, to reduce blood sugar and triglyceridemia
  4. Moderation of dietary cholesterol and reduction of LDL circulating in the blood
  5. Increase of unsaturated fatty acids belonging to the ω3 family and (if necessary) also of ?? ω6 and ω ?? 9, to the detriment of saturated and / or hydrogenated fatty acids; the effect can be translated into a reduction in blood pressure and triglycerides, with lowering of total and / or LDL cholesterol, and sometimes an increase in HDL
  6. Increase in water, dietary fiber, phenolic substances, vegetable lecithins, phytosterols, antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant or otherwise useful minerals (potassium, magnesium and calcium) to: reduce the absorption of cholesterol and improve its metabolism, reduce total oxidative stress and improve the sodium / potassium balance for the benefit of blood pressure
  7. Moderation / elimination of nerves such as: caffeine, theine, other stimulants present in energy drinks, ethyl alcohol, etc.

Furthermore, it is advisable to combine the low-sodium diet with: abolition of smoking, reduction of excessively stressful situations and start-up of an open-ended protocol of aerobic and anaerobic motor physical activity.
In summary, the low-sodium diet is aimed not only at moderating blood pressure but also at reducing overall cardiovascular risk, especially in the presence of other risk factors for ischemic heart disease and cerebral vascular syndrome (facilitated by atherosclerosis and hypertension or by hereditary factors such as aneurysms). NB. The low-sodium diet may also need the right precautions for the prevention of hyperuricemia or gouty attacks in predisposed subjects, but it is a rather peculiar and specific therapy.
In practice, the low-sodium diet aimed at compensating for hypertension and other predisposing metabolic parameters (overweight, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia or diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, high oxidative stress, etc.) is structured as follows:



  • Elimination of cooking salt and preserved foods (cured meats, aged cheeses, cans, etc.); only refrigerated and frozen foods are allowed
  • Reduction of at least 1/3 of all portions except vegetables
  • Portion reduction of: starchy or highly carbohydrate foods such as pasta, bread and potatoes, preserved fruit such as jams, fruit in syrup, dehydrated fruit, etc., and high-calorie fruit such as ripe bananas, persimmons, figs, grapes, mandarins, etc. . NB: Better to REPLACE refined starchy foods with WHOLE ones
  • Abolition of fatty meats, aged cheeses and egg yolks, drastic reduction of meats, cheeses and eggs in general in favor of fishery products and in particular of blue fish (fresh tuna, alletterato, amberjack, bonito, greenhouse , leccia, mahi mahi, mackerel, lanzardo, anchovy, sardine, herring, garfish, boga, etc.)
  • Replacement of any seasoning or saturated or hydrogenated fat with vegetable oils; use of extra virgin olive oil for cooking and (if desired) of oils rich in ω - ?? 3 for raw dressing (soy, kiwi, grape seed, walnut, flax etc.). NB: the use of dried fruit provides essential fatty acids BUT it must be balanced with respect to the total fat intake; for every 10g of dried fruit it is necessary to eliminate 5g of oil
  • Significant increase in portions of fresh and cooked vegetables; if absent, integration of fresh fruit with peel
  • Abolition of energy drinks and spirits; drastic moderation of coffee, tea and red wine at main meals
  • If possible, use low-sodium water.

Useful supplements in the low-sodium diet

The supplements useful to the low-sodium diet to decrease blood pressure are:


  1. Potassium: which has an opposite effect to that of sodium
  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family, possibly EPA and DHA (biologically more active), which have the effect of reducing blood pressure, the state of systemic inflammation and hyperlipidemia
  3. Arginine amino acid
  4. Diuretic and / or hypotensive plant plants, extracts and derivatives.

It may be necessary to associate some generic food supplements to the low-sodium and low-calorie diet; this is justified by the fact that in the most restrictive regimes, the relative food portions are often not sufficient to reach the recommended rations for mineral salts and / or vitamins.


Diet against hypertension: Example

  • Post office worker, hypertensive, does not practice motor physical activity, she gave up smoking but by doing this she gained a lot of weight. He likes aperitifs and does not have breakfast. Autumn-winter season.
Gender F
Age 53 years
Height cm 158 cm
Wrist circumference cm 14.8 cm
Constitution thin
Height / wrist 10.7
Morphological type Normolineo
Weight kg 85.0Kg
Body mass index 34.1
Evaluation Obese
Physiological body mass index desirable 22.0
Desirable physiological weight kg 48.2Kg
Basal metabolism kcal 1248.0Kcal
Physical activity level coefficient 1.42
Energy expenditure kcal 1772.4kcal
Diet IPOSODIC / IPOCALORICS -30% 1240Kcal
Lipids 25% 310.0kcal 34.4g
Protein > 0,8 and <1,5g / kg Average 289.2kcal Media 72.3g
Carbohydrates 51.7% 640.8kcal 170.9g
Breakfast 15% 186kcal
Snack 10% 124kcal
Lunch 35% 434kcal
Snack 10% 124kcal
Price 30% 372kcal


Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 1


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Skimmed cow's milk 200,0 ml 72,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Apple 150,0g 78,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Wholemeal pasta with tomato
Whole wheat semolina pasta 80,0g 259,2kcal
Tomato Sauce 100,0g 24,0kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
Lettuce 50,0g 9,0kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Orange 150,0g 51,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Anchovies in a pan
Anchovies or anchovies 200,0g 192,0kcal
Zucchini (in a pan) 200,0g 32,0kcal
Extravirgin olive oil 10,0g 90,0kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Nutritional translation of DAY 1
Nutrient or nutritional component Quantity
Energy law 1251.75kcal
Food water 1055.88g
Protein 72.95g
Total lipids 35.83g
Total saturated fat 8.34g
Total monounsaturated fatty acids 16.17g
Total polyunsaturated fatty acids 8.90g
Cholesterol 157.50mg
Carbohydrates 177.27g
Simple, total sugars 69.85g
Alcohol, ethanol 0.00
Dietary Fiber 26.67g
Sodium 1546.80mg
Potassium 3132.75mg
Soccer 975.45mg
Iron 16.2mg
Phosphorus and Potassium 1351.10mg
Zinc 11.09mg
Tiamina O vit. B1 1.72mg
Riboflavina o vit. B2 2.08mg
Niacin or vit. B3 o vit. PP 41.73mg
Pyridossine o vit. B6 2.33mg
Folate, total 169.4μg
Ascorbic acid or vit. C. 135.90mg
Retinol equivalent activity or vit. TO 397.20RAE
α-tocopherol o vit. AND 14.79mg

In LIGHT BLUE: the perfect achievement of some desirable recommended rations of the most IMPORTANT nutritional components for the low-calorie, low-calorie and PREVENTIVE diet against metabolic diseases (weighted to the specific case).


In yellow: the total fiber intake which, optimally, should be around 30g / day; obviously, since it is a translation of a single day, it is not possible to show the weekly average which would also include legumes and other vegetables (richer in fiber than the foods present in the example).


In red: the intake of TOTAL simple carbohydrates which, according to the recommendations, should be 2-10% lower than the value obtained. However, considering the nature of the carbohydrates in place (exclusively intrinsic and not added fructose and lactose), it is possible to state that the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (CG) of individual foods and meals are more than suitable. After all, consider that fructose (which represents most of the simple carbohydrates mentioned above) has the lowest GI of the available carbohydrates. The same quantity of simple sugars contextualized in a low-sodium but NORMOcaloric diet would have determined a lower ratio and suitability for dietary recommendations; therefore, it is a purely proportional issue.
Below we will report the rest of the low-sodium and low-calorie weekly example for the subject under consideration.


Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 2


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Soy milk enriched in vitamins A, D and calcium 200,0 ml 54,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Pear 150,0g 87,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Risotto with champignons
Long grain brown rice 70,0g 259,0kcal
Champignons - champignons 100,0g 22,0kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
radicchio 50,0g 11,5kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Grapefruit (pink, red and white) 150,0g 48,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Grilled yellow tail fish
Ricciola or leccia 150,0g 219,0kcal
Eggplant (in a pan) 200,0g 48,0kcal
Extravirgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 3


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Skimmed cow's milk 200,0 ml 72,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Kiwi 150,0g 91,5kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Bean soup with carrots
Dried borlotti beans 80,0g 248,8kcal
carrots 50,0g 20,5kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive or soybean oil TOT 10,0g 90,0kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Winter melon 150,0g 42,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Grilled chicken breast
Chicken breast, meat only 200,0g 220,0kcal
Extravirgin olive oil 5,0g 90,0kcal
Fennel (raw) 200,0g 18,0kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 4


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Soy milk enriched in vitamins A, D and calcium 200,0 ml 54,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Apple 150,0g 78,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Wholemeal pasta with peppers
Whole wheat semolina pasta 80,0g 259,2kcal
Pepperoni 100,0g 22,0kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
Belgian endive 50,0g 8,5kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Orange 150,0g 51,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Carpaccio of red tuna fillet
Red tuna fillet, blast chilled 200,0g 216,kcal
Cabbage 200,0g 50,0kcal
Extravirgin olive oil 10,0g 90,0kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 5


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Skimmed cow's milk 200,0 ml 72,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Pear 150,0g 87,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Arugula risotto
Long grain brown rice 70,0g 259,0kcal
arugula (rocket salad) 100,0g 12,5kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
Valerian 50,0g 10,5kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Grapefruit (pink, red and white) 150,0g 48,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Steamed monkfish
Monkfish 200,0g 126,0kcal
Broccoli (steamed) 200,0g 68,0kcal
Extra virgin olive or soybean oil TOT 15,0g 135,0kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 6


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Soy milk enriched in vitamins A, D and calcium 200,0 ml 54,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Kiwi 150,0g 91,5kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Chickpea soup with celery
Chickpeas, dried 80,0g 267,2kcal
Celery 200,0g 32,0kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive or soybean oil TOT 10,0g 90,0kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Winter melon 150,0g 42,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
ricotta cheese
Cow ricotta 120,0g 163,2kcal
Potato (Boiled) 100,0g 85,0kcal
Extra virgin olive or soybean oil TOT 10,0g 90kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

Low Sodium Diet Example - Day 7


Breakfast, about 15% of the daily energy
Skimmed cow's milk 200,0 ml 72,0kcal
Muesli with dehydrated fruit and hazelnuts 30,0g 102,0kcal
Snack 1, about 10% of the daily energy
Apple 150,0g 78,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Lunch, about 35% of the daily energy
Wholemeal pasta with zucchini
Whole wheat semolina pasta 80,0g 259,2kcal
zucchini 100,0g 16,0kcal
Grated Parmesan) 10,0g 38,1kcal
Extra virgin olive oil 5,0g 45,0kcal
Lettuce 50,0g 9,0kcal
Soybean oil 5,0g 44,2kcal
Snack 2, about 10% of the daily energy
Orange 150,0g 51,0kcal
Skimmed milk yogurt 125,0g 45,0kcal
Wholemeal rusks 15,0g 54,8kcal
Dinner, about 30% of the daily energy
Egg and egg white omelette
Whole chicken egg 60,0g 85,0kcal
Egg whites 200,0g 96,0kcal
Stewed artichokes) 200,0g 94,0kcal
Extravirgin olive oil 10,0g 90,0kcal
Whole grain bread 25,0g 60,8kcal

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