Lean Protein

Who I am
Robert Maurer


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Le protein they are polymers composed of amino acids (aa - monomers) bound by peptide and hydrogen bonds; from a chemical point of view, aa are quaternary molecules (basically composed of: carbon - C, hydrogen - H, oxygen - O and nitrogen - N) which, by structuring thousands of biologically different proteins, are indispensable for the survival of the human organism.

Amino acids

There are 20 L-amino acids, or ordinary amino acids: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine; from their metabolism it is possible to obtain more than 500 molecules, but almost all of them can be synthesized by the human organism. The only ones that need introduction with the diet are said to be essential and for the adult they are: phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan and valine, while for the child they are 2 more, respectively: histidine and arginine .

More information on proteins

Proteins perform numerous functions; among the most important are: structural, bioregulatory, immune, transport, cell membrane channel, energetic, hormonal, neurotransmission, etc.

Dietary protein intake therefore has the function of complying with all the biological needs of the organism, which differ mainly in terms of: age, sex, physical activity, body structure and muscle mass, special pathological or physiological conditions.

An adult, healthy and sedentary organism can survive with 0,75 grams (g) per kilogram (kg) of weight (physiological, not overweight or underweight), while a growing subject needs about 1,5 g / kg.

Sportsmen, athletes, pregnant and sick women need a more detailed estimate than that obtainable through the tables referring to the general population.

What are

In the nutritional field it is common to hear about "lean proteins"; in reality, it is an improperly attributed denomination which, rather, refers to predominantly protein foods with low fat content.

Which ones are they

Lean proteins are mainly associated with lean meats from burrows (rabbit) or poultry (mainly chicken and turkey). Lean proteins of veal (young bovine), horses, some fishery products (molluscs, crustaceans and fish), egg white and skimmed yogurt are also frequently consumed.

On the contrary, legumes associated with cereals are less used (a technique useful for improving their biological value) and lean proteins deriving from game, frogs, land snails and ostrich muscle are almost totally ignored.

"Lean Protein" Table (values ​​per 100g of edible portion)

Food Protein Lipids Cholesterol
Anchovies 16,8 2,6 61.0
Lobster 16.0 1.9 70.0
Squid 12.6 1.7 64.0
Horse 19.8 6.8 61.0
Grouper 17.0 2.0 -
Porto Cervo 21.8 0.8 -
croaker 20.0 0.8 75.0
Whole rabbit 19.9 4.3 53.0
Mussel 11.7 2.7 121
Daino 21.0 1.2 -
Guinea fowl breast 25.8 1.9 32.0
Shrimp 13.6 0.6 150
Canned crab 18.1 0.9 101
Pike 18.7 0.6 -
Snail 12.9 1.7 -
Cod 17.0 0.3 50.0
Molo 17.4 0.3 52.0
He murmurs 18.0 1.9 45.0
Oyster 10.2 0.9 150
Pagello 21.0 1.9 35.0
Dogfish 16.0 1.2 -
Whole chicken 19.4 3.6 75.0
Octopus 10.6 1.0 72.0
Rana 15.5 0.2 50.0
Razza 14.2 0.9 -
Diamond 16.3 1.3 -
Sheepshead - 1.2 65.0
Redfish 19.0 0.4 67.0
Seppia 14 1.5 64
Sole 16.9 1.4 25.0
Bass 16.5 1.5 48.0
Ostrich 20.9 0.9 57.0
Whole turkey 21.9 2.4 63.0
Skimmed yogurt 3.3 0.9 2.0
Calf 20.7 2.7 71.0
Clam 10.2 2.5 -
Egg - Albumen 10.7 Tracks 0.0

As can be seen from the above values, almost all lean proteins have a very low cholesterol intake, with the exception of some molluscs and some crustaceans (in the red table).

The following were deliberately excluded: tofu, soy milk and low-fat cottage cheese, as the lipid profile differs too much from that of meat foods, and for the same reason it was decided NOT to include legumes due to the excessive importance of carbohydrate profile; legumes, especially if associated with cereals, boast a good protein content and quality ... but these are in any case not comparable to those of lean meat, fishery products and egg white.

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