La trough it's a disorder you can have important repercussions on life of the people who suffer from it. In some cases, this condition makes it difficult to study or work, to maintain emotional and social relationships, to feel interest or pleasure in normal daily activities.
Unfortunately, people with depression rarely recognize the symptoms and do not seek medical attention. In fact, this disease can be faced and overcome.
Il treatment è customWhat works for one person may not work for another. The therapeutic path to get out of depression must therefore be established with the help of a specialist doctor, in relation to the characteristics of the individual and the disease.
What is Depression?
La trough (also called major depressive disorder) is a condition characterized by a series of symptoms that occur simultaneously, over a certain period of time. These manifestations interfere in an important way on daily life and cause significant discomfort in the subject who suffers from them.
Le "spies" of depression they can be many, but they generally include:
- Persistent sadness and / or very strong lowering of mood;
- Little desire to do and loss of interest in normal things (eg work, social life or relationships);
- Inability to feel pleasure (anhedonia)
- Changes in biological rhythms (such as, for example, sleeping badly and struggling to "fuel" in the morning);
- Difficulty concentrating, memory loss and other cognitive disorders.
Physical and somatic ailments such as headaches, lack of energy and myalgias also represent a wake-up call. To talk about depression, symptoms need to be present all day and last for at least two weeks.
What are the Causes of Depression?
To understand how to get out of depression, it is necessary to know that, even today, the mechanisms underlying this complex disease are not fully understood.
However, in recent years, some aspects have been clarified and it seems that the disorder may be caused by the interaction of multiple triggers.
In particular, it seems that the following may intervene:
- Biological factors: Depression seems to be essentially due to biological modifications that affect the functions of the brain. These have not yet been fully clarified, but the dysfunction of some neurotransmitters, substances that allow the normal transmission of nerve impulses. In fact, these play an important role in the mechanisms that regulate the mood, the relationship with the outside world and the ability to react to emotional stimuli.
- Genetic factors: some people have a basic setup to develop depression. In some cases, this increased susceptibility is genetically determined and is hereditary: this is demonstrated by the fact that often more members of the same family develop depression.
- Psychosocial factors: depression can occur for no apparent reason; often, however, the first episode is triggered by external circumstances and can be associated with a negative triggering event, such as painful and stressful past experiencesdisappointments and relationships with friends or family that are not very fulfilling. Also determined character and psychological traits of the subject they can predispose to depression. In particular, introverted and timid subjects are vulnerable or those who easily enter into crisis in case of tension or suffer from interpersonal dependence.
- Environmental factors: in some people predisposed to depression, they show symptoms only if they experience certain situations in the course of life. For example, the discrepancy created between natural and social rhythms increases the chances of getting sick. Likewise, unfulfilling relationships or an unsatisfactory job intervene. Other predisposing factors are insufficient rest, poor exposure to sunlight, and alcohol and drug abuse.
Symptoms, signs and complications
To get out of depression, it is essential to recognize the symptoms in order to arrive at a diagnosis as soon as possible and start an effective therapeutic path.
The disease is announced, in particular, by a series of signals that occur simultaneously, for a certain interval of time, and represent a change from the previous level of functioning.
The criteria for diagnosing depression
In order to be able to speak of real depression, the doctor must subject the patient to a complete examination, with the aim of identifying the coexistence of at least five or more of the following symptoms:
- Persistent sadness, anxiety and a feeling of emptiness
- Despair and a totally pessimistic view of life;
- Feelings of self-depreciation or excessive, ongoing or inappropriate feelings of guilt;
- Marked decrease of interest or pleasure in carrying out habitual activities that previously gave satisfaction or were rewarding;
- Lack or excess of energy, constant feeling of fatigue or, conversely, agitation;
- Significant weight gain or loss completely independent of the person's will (or decrease or increase in appetite);
- Sleep disturbances (hypersomnia, insomnia or frequent awakenings during the night);
- Feeling of being "slowed down" and difficulty in being able to concentrate, remember or make decisions;
- Continuous pain or other persistent physical symptoms, not caused by a physical illness or injury;
- Recurring thoughts of death, suicide ideation or attempt.
At least one of the symptoms must consist of depressed mood o loss of interest or pleasure. Important elements to pay attention to is the recurrence and duration of symptoms, which must occur for the much of everyday life, nearly every day, And for at least two weeks.
To get out of depression, you need to know that this disease can manifest itself with different levels of severity. Some people have low intensity symptoms related to particular moments in life; others feel so depressed that they cannot carry out normal daily activities.
The various forms of depression, although they may present themselves differently, share some characteristics:
- Almost always, the first depressive episode is triggered by a easily identifiable event, perceived by the person as an important and unacceptable loss; subsequent relapses may appear, however, without an apparent trigger.
- Symptoms cause a clinically significant discomfort or a functional impairment in important contexts of daily life (social, work, emotional, family area, etc.).
- The depressive episodes last for at least two weeks, manifesting themselves with a series of symptoms not connected to other causes (such as hormonal dysfunction, hypothyroidism or drug treatment).
Getting out of depression is possible: just recognize the problem and deal with it with medical support. The average time to reach the diagnosis of depression is very long: it is estimated on average two years between the onset of the first symptoms and the start of therapies.
The late decision to consult a doctor negatively affects the manifestations, the effectiveness of the treatments and the recovery from the disease.
Depression is a complex disorder that does not always present itself clearly and can be associated with other pathologies. For this reason, the therapy is highly personalized and requires one small dose of patience: Before finding the most effective strategies to get out of depression, it may take even more attempts.
First, it is important follow the times and methods of treatment indicated by the doctor general practitioner or psychiatrist, depending on the different needs or the severity of the pathology. In fact, if the instructions are not followed correctly, it is likely that the therapeutic path to get out of depression will not work or there will be some fallout for exacerbation of symptoms or re-exposure to risk factors.
In the milder forms, psychotherapy alone may be indicated to overcome depression, in order to resolve or reduce the symptoms of the disease.
Some of the possible interventions are:
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy: this treatment is based on a series of individual interviews. The aim is to help the person adopt new points of view, encouraging them to minimize and solve their problems. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy also intervenes by modifying expectations about oneself and helps to identify negative and dysfunctional ways of thinking. This allows the patient to become aware of the vicious circles that maintain and aggravate the disease. Finally, the physician encourages the subject to engage in enjoyable and rewarding activities. At the end of the course, it is important to set up a maintenance therapy, which intervenes on the strategies useful to avoid relapses.
- Psycho-education: family and patients are informed about what the disease is about, in order to create a common knowledge that helps people to follow the treatment. In the path to get out of depression, it is essential to have a welcoming and understanding family next to you, which does not stimulate feelings of shame, but which supports all stages of the disease. Since relapses are easy, the people who are close to the subject are also "educated" to recognize the symptoms that herald a new depressive episode.
- Interpersonal therapy: it seems to be effective, especially when used in synergy with drug treatment. The goal is to strengthen the social network of the depressed person, helping him to get out of social isolation and to overcome unresolved problems.
To get out of medium-severe forms of depression, psychotherapy is almost always associated with pharmacological treatment.
Considering also the biological basis of the disease, it is necessary to establish a therapeutic protocol that acts in this sense. The most used drugs are, in fact, the antidepressants which work by modulating the action of neurotransmitters. The most suitable therapy for the specific case is prescribed by the psychiatrist: it is necessary to remember that depression is not the same for everyone and it is essential to frame the discomfort as precisely as possible, so as to be able to adequately calibrate the active ingredient to be used, the dosage, times and methods of administration.
As for antidepressants, they are mainly used:
- Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): e. fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and escitalopram;
- Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): es. duloxetine and venlafaxine;
- Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): it is. bupropione;
- Tricyclic antidepressants: es. imipramina, nortriptilina e amitriptilina;
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors - MAOIs: es. tranilcipromina, fenelzina e isocarbossazide.
Other medicines used for depression are:
- Mood stabilizers: they regulate its tone, trying to stabilize it over time;
- Antipsychotics: act against manic symptoms;
- Anxiolytics-hypnotics: reduce the states of anxiety and the sense of anguish.
In association with pharmacological treatments and psychotherapy, to get out of depression, the doctor may also recommend the use of other methods, such as:
- Relaxation techniques: they are especially useful when depression is also associated with anxiety-inducing symptoms. During the session guided fantasies are used, the evocation of pleasant images and the control of breathing;
- Light therapy: consists of exposure for 30 minutes a day, for a couple of weeks, to a special lamp that administers precise light stimuli. The treatment intervenes by balancing the levels of melatonin and serotonin, two hormones involved in the development of depression. "Light therapy" must always be prescribed by the specialist and can be performed in hospitals or specialized centers. On the market, there are also lamps for home use.
- Phytotherapy: natural medicine can help to combat anxiety, insomnia and depression. Also in this case, the doctor can recommend the most appropriate remedy for the characteristics and conditions of the person. In the presence of depression, St. John's wort (or St. John's wort) and Rhodiola can lift the mood. Other particularly useful remedies are Passionflower and Valerian (calming), Chamomile, Hawthorn and Lemon Balm (soothe abdominal or muscle spasms associated with agitation), Bitter Orange and Linden (promote relaxation).
To feel better and reduce the risk of relapsing into depression, this is important follow a healthy lifestyle.
In particular, it is advisable:
- Follow a balanced diet, avoiding foods that contain exciting (no to excess caffeine, theine or chocolate) or too many fats and sugars;
- Limit the consumption of alcohol and drugs: they have negative effects on the central nervous system and mental functions;
- Practice regular physical activity, with at least 40-60 minutes of healthy movement, 3-4 times a week;
- Get enough sleep and try not to lose too much sleep
- Don't underestimate the main red flags, such as loss of interest or pleasure in normal daily activities;
- Try not to isolate yourself, keeping in touch with family members and with your network of friends;
- Don't make important decisions at a time when you are feeling particularly disheartened.