La functionality to the muscles and bones it largely depends on the level and type of physical activity.
For this, depending on the objective and the subjective condition, they can come Recommended of esercizi rather than others.
On the other hand, both variables conceal numerous facets, which in turn impose a rigorous one evaluation and an equally accurate one drawing up of the protocol. Age, sex, uncomfortable conditions or pathologies, performance level, nutritional status, sports history, etc. they are all essential discriminants in the annual programming and in the planning of workout.
Objectively speaking, it could however be said that the two elements of greater thickness are the basal function (i.e. the potential one, which must take into account personal limitations, but also the margin for improvement) and the goals (if health-related, preventive, rehabilitative, sports, etc.).
In this article we will try to understand better how to choose the type of training and above all in what way manage it, overall, to optimize the health of the apparatus locomotive.
La functional evaluation is a real branch of motor therapy.
Not at all trivial or obvious, this estimate can be generic or specific, depending on the case.
In general, for a correct choice of the recommended exercises, the historical anamnesis of the subject is fundamental. Hence, above all else, we find the patient's point of view; or symptoms and impressions.
In short, if we were to make a functional assessment referring to a sample of males and females over 60 years of age, without any sporting background, the first step would be to ask / yes:
"Do you have difficulty in carrying out your normal daily activities? If so, which ones?"
Based on the answer, we can then begin to insert an external point of view, with objective evaluations.
For example, to understand the degree of strength of the lower limbs, we could perform / request a simple exercise:
"Sit and get up consecutively from your chair as many times as possible without using your hands."
"Touch your toes by bending your torso forward, barefoot."
"Carry out circling of the arms".
In the event that significant problems persist in one or more functions of the musculoskeletal system, it will be necessary to choose "if" and "how" to intervene - referring to a professional of the pathology, or restoring strength, flexibility, elasticity or mobility with allenamenti specific.
To give another concrete example, if there is acute pain in the coxo-femoral area (hip joint on the femur), it might be a good idea to recommend an orthopedic visit to rule out the presence of arthrosis, arthritis, etc.
In this case, it would be wise to adapt the program by dedicating only a few exercises - and exclusively for mobility - to this specific articulation, pending further investigations.
In parallel, supporting muscles such as the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings should still be kept trophic; isotonic machines such as leg-extension and leg-curl will come to our aid.
Observing a marked difficulty in flexing the torso, one should instead give priority to understanding the limiting muscle or joint, thus trying to build a specific workout.
Shoulder mobility may also require intervention in a similar way, unless the problem is a limitation due to painful symptoms; in that case, the possibilities are more likely 2: tendon compromise of one or more elements of the rotator cuff, osteoarthritis or calcifications. In both cases, the orthopedist will have to express himself in this regard.
If, on the other hand, the functional evaluation were performed on sports subjects, it would become almost essential to apply aptitude tests on the discipline in question.
Before programming and planning, it is essential to establish the goal primary.
In this article we mainly talk about how to maintain good muscle and bone functionality, which a priori excludes athletes proper.
Therefore, keeping in mind what has been said in the paragraph above, we could establish that:
- The primary goal is to increase or maintain the basal function;
- To do this, it is first of all necessary "fill up le any gaps motor", treating any pathologies or intervening to preserve strength, mobility, elasticity and flexibility;
- However, it is not possible to act on a single part of the body and, even if the problem were "specific", the training should involve all l'body. The interest rates can obviously change.
How to do
Very briefly, the program for maintaining good muscle and bone function should be complete, developing:
- Force: related to trophism muscular and therefore useful in preventing sarcopenia in over 60s;
- Resistance, both long and brief: trains glucose metabolism and has a beneficial impact on lipid turnover. It stimulates cardio-circulatory and respiratory efficiency. Reduces the chances of cardiovascular events and increases energy consumption;
- Flexibility ed elasticity muscle: reduce the chances of muscle injury from contracture, strain and tearing; increase general motility;
- Joint mobility: increases the ROM (range of motion) and keeps the joint capsules well lubricated, preventing the typical aches of advancing age. Reduces the chances of joint injury;
- Coordination skills: including balance, reaction, reflexes, overall agility etc. They very effectively prevent accidental falls, which as we know are the first cause of fractures and then possibly responsible for very serious problems - especially in the elderly.
All this, in addition to promoting the state of health, significantly increases the quality of life.
If it is true that each case is unique, it can be deduced that it is impossible to standardize the typology of esercizi ideal for maintaining good muscle and bone function.
Below we will therefore make a brief overview of the executions recommended for healthy subjects, not particularly performing, but without complications of the musculoskeletal system.
Strength exercises should be divided according to the muscles involved.
- Thighs e buttocks: free squat (possibly squat with barbell), lunges (possibly with dumbbells or barbell), leg-extension, leg-curl, leg press. Less applicable, even if extremely effective for the involvement of the back, the deadlift with the barbell - the variants with straight legs, or the good-morning (alternative) are also useful;
- pectoral: push-ups (also called "pushups"), flat / inclined bench presses with barbell / dumbbells, dumbbell / cable crosses, various strength machines (pectoral-machine, peck-deck, bench press, etc.);
- Dorsal: pull-ups (or pull-ups) possibly facilitated with elastic (all handles), rowing machine with barbell / dumbbells (all handles), pulley-machine, row machine etc.
- abdominal: crunch, alternating crunch, reverse crunch, sit-up, front plank (regular or on the elbows) side plank, side-bridge, vacuum;
- Lumbar: hyperextension of the torso, from standing or on a specific bench (also with dumbbells or other ballast), or on the ground with free body in isometry;
- Deltoidi: lateral raises with dumbbells / cables, front raises with dumbbells / cables, 90 ° raises with dumbbells / cables, military-press or shoulder-press, pulls to the chin (useful for involving the trapezius);
- Biceps and other flexors forearm: dumbbell / barbell / cable curl, sitting or standing, alternating or bilateral, with forearm rotation and different grips;
- Triceps: parallel dip possibly facilitated with elastic, French-press with barbell, kick-back with dumbbells, cable push-down etc.
- Calves: plantar flexions, mono-podalic or bilateral, free-body or on a calf-machine (or at the press).
They depend on the type of activity enjoyed or granted.
Generally, it starts from walk or from pedaling, outdoors or on fitness machines (treadmill or exercise bike). More rarely from basic swimming or other activities such as canoeing or rowing.
The resistance of long duration implies the activation of the solo aerobic metabolism; it will therefore be sufficient to start from a low volume and intensity (for example, 3 weekly workouts of 30 'at a slow pace), gradually increasing them and above all in terms of duration.
Even by increasing the speed - or by inserting, for example, running - the intensity will always be below the anaerobic threshold, i.e. at a sustainable pace for up to and over an hour.
The resistance of short term instead it requires the involvement of the production of lactic acid. It makes your heart rate and respiratory rate go up a lot.
If one wishes to use the means of long-lasting resistance, it is possible to orient oneself towards this purpose by alternating between fast repeats a recoveries passive or active. This causes the anaerobic threshold to be exceeded with an increase in lactate and a progressive increase in the ability to dispose of it.
If, on the other hand, you want to develop this type of strength-oriented resistance, you can use both the exercises described above and other different executions (such as burpees or various kettlebell exercises) organized in special circuits.
It would be unthinkable to describe this kind of exercise satisfactorily in a few lines.
This is why we will limit ourselves to describing the general criteria to be respected to ensure that the training is profitable.
First of all, both the flexibility and elasticity protocols, and those for mobility, would not work may carried out a cold and not even a musculature exhausted.
Secondly, it is appropriate that the stimuli turn out sufficiently close together; about 3 sessions per week, perhaps to be combined with other sessions, are the average recommended solution.
Each exercise will need to be repeated one to three times, taking care of extend le tensions muscles and heal theamplitude to the movements for a sufficient time (10-30 '' for newbies, or even more).
Often overlooked, they are very important.
Training is not easy, as it often requires rather complicated exercises that require the supervision of a technician.
This is why many prefer to kill "two birds with one stone" by focusing on functional training.
This type of workout requires (or should) engage in gestures close to those of everyday life, complex, multi-joint, in which the complexity of the motor patterns develops reflexes, agility and balance.