Example diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Example diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Premise

    The following indications are for informational purposes EXCLUSIVELY and are not intended to replace the opinion of professionals such as a doctor, nutritionist or dietician, whose intervention is necessary for the prescription and composition of PERSONALIZED food therapies.


    Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a disease that affects glucose metabolism; if left untreated, this form of diabetes also affects the state of health, lowering the quality and life expectancy of the patient.


    In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus glucose, once absorbed from the intestinal tract and poured into the bloodstream - due to an alteration of the hormonal vehicle (insulin) or a malfunction of the peripheral tyrosine kinase receptors that do not capture it sufficiently effective - remains in circulation causing a series of negative metabolic reactions (NB. Nervous tissue is the only insulin-independent).


    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder that includes many facets, but what unites ALL clinical pictures is a situation of hyperglycemia (> 110 mg / dl), possibly accompanied by hyper-insulinemia and hyperlipidemia (VLDL - hypertriglyceridemia); obviously, this frequently leads to overweight, worsening of hypertension, glycation of plasma proteins, pro-oxidation of APO-B proteins and consequent REDUCTION of the ability to bind to peripheral receptors (LDL hypercholesterolemia), increased risk of atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and foot of the diabetic.


    Causes and treatment

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has several etiological causes; the most common concern the lifestyle: improper diet and carbohydrate abuse, excess fat mass, lack of muscle mass, sedentary lifestyle; others are genetic, such as the structural alteration of insulin or peripheral receptors. Certainly, whatever the causes, the most effective therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus consists of:

    • Reduction of overweight / obesity
    • Reduction of excess carbohydrates and restoration of nutritional balance
    • Motor therapy
    • Pharmacological therapy
    • Compensation for other metabolisms.

    Diet for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    The diet for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is almost always made up of a low-calorie diet (for weight loss) and, if not hypoglucidic, which provides the least amount of carbohydrates possible PUR while maintaining a certain nutritional balance; the diet for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus CANNOT go beyond the beginning of motor therapy.
    The basic principles of the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diet are:


    • Hypocaloricity (if necessary)
    • Reduction of the overall glycemic load
    • Reduction of the glycemic load of meals
    • Reduction of the glycemic index of meals
    • Supply of simple carbohydrates exclusively represented by fructose naturally present in vegetables or by lactose naturally present in milk and dairy products (possibly, simple CHOs must remain around 10-12% of total calories).

    Which from a practical point of view translates into:


    • Choice of foods rich in fiber and elimination / drastic reduction of refined foods
    • Abolition of sweets, sweet carbonated drinks, fruit juices, beer and baked goods
    • Reduction of overly sweet fruit and elimination of preserved fruit (candied fruit, in syrup, jams (questionable), dehydrated, etc.)
    • Increase, as much as possible, of foods containing antioxidants (vegetables, fruit NOT too sugary).

    Useful supplements

    There are no essential supplements to the treatment / diet for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (drugs are NOT supplements); however, it is obvious that a well-considered supplementation based on antioxidants (to try to improve oxidative stress on lipoproteins) and, in the case of a highly hypocaloric diet, a fiber supplement (possibly viscous which improve the glycemic index of the meal and increase the sense of satiety) could be useful in improving the impact of nutritional treatment.


    Diet Example

    • Retired lady who can take long walks. He takes hypoglycemic drugs.
    Gender F
    Age 77
    Height cm 155
    Wrist circumference cm 15,5
    Constitution Normal
    Height / wrist 10,0
    Morphological type Normolineo
    Weight kg 68
    Body mass index 28,3
    Evaluation Overweight
    Physiological body mass index desirable 21,7
    Desirable physiological weight kg 52,1
    Basal metabolism kcal 1134.6
    Physical activity level coefficient YES aus 1,56
    Energy expenditure kcal 1769,9
    Diet IPOCALORICS -30% 1240 Kcal approx
    Lipids 30% 372kcal 41,3g
    Protein 1,2g / kg * physiol. 250,1kcal 62,5g
    Carbohydrates 50,0% 617,9kcal 164,8g
    Breakfast 15% 186kcal
    Snack 10% 124kcal
    Lunch 35% 434kcal
    Snack 10% 124kcal
    Price 30% 372kcal

    NB. The following diet example refers to a case of type 2 diabetes mellitus already pharmacologically compensated; therefore, the use of pasta and bread is allowed; however, even if the blood sugar were higher, it would not be possible to excessively distort the nutritional balance of the diet in favor of fats (which would limit weight loss) and / or proteins (which could excessively strain the liver and kidneys of a third party age).



    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 1


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Strawberries 150g, 48,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    Pasta with tomato sauce
    Whole wheat semolina pasta 80g, 259,2kcal
    Tomato Sauce 100g, 24,0kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    Lettuce 100g, 18,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Sour red cherries 100g, 50,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Grilled chicken breast
    Chicken breast 100g, 110,0kcal
    Melanzane 200g, 48,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 2


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ orange 200g, 63,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    Stewed beans
    Dried beans 80g, 279,9kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    radicchio 100g, 24,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ orange 200g, 63,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Trout fillet
    Trout, various species 100g, 148,0kcal
    Fennel 200g, 62,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 10g, 90,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 3


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ apple, with peel 200g, 52,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    White rice
    Brown rice 80g, 289,6kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    arugula (rocket salad) 100g, 25,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ apple, with peel 200g, 52,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Hard-boiled eggs
    Grapes of hen 100g, 143,0kcal
    Potato 100g, 85,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 5g, 45,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 4


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Kiwi 100g, 61,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    Chickpeas in broth
    Chickpeas, dried 90g, 300,6kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    Valerian 100g, 18,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Kiwi 100g, 61,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Cod fillet in a pan
    Atlantic cod fillet 100g, 82,0kcal
    Chard 200g, 38,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 5


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Strawberries 150g, 48,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    Eggplant pasta
    Whole wheat semolina pasta 80g, 259,2kcal
    Melanzane 100g, 24,0kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    Lettuce 100g, 18,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    Sour red cherries 100g, 50,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Turkey breast
    Chicken breast 100g, 111,0kcal
    Zucchini 200g, 36,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 6


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ orange 200g, 63,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    Stewed beans
    Dried beans 80g, 279,9kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    radicchio 100g, 24,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ orange 200g, 63,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    Trout fillet
    Trout, various species 100g, 97,0kcal
    Fennel 200g, 62,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal

    Example diet for Type 2 Diabetes - DAY 7


    Breakfast, about 15% kcal TOT
    Low-fat milk, 2% of the total 150ml, 75,0kcal
    Wholemeal bread, RETRIEVE 50g, 121,5kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ apple, with peel 200g, 52,0kcal
    Lunch, about 35% kcal TOT
    White rice
    Brown rice 80g, 289,6kcal
    Parmesan 10g, 39,2kcal
    arugula (rocket salad) 100g, 25,0kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 15g, 135,0kcal
    Snack, about 10% kcal TOT
    Light yogurt 125g, 70,0kcal
    ½ apple, with peel 200g, 52,0kcal
    Dinner, about 30% kcal TOT
    ricotta cheese
    Cow ricotta, from partially skimmed milk 100g, 138,0kcal
    Endive 200g, 36,0kcal
    Whole grain bread 25g, 60,8kcal
    Extra virgin olive oil 10g, 90,0kcal

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