The problem of "extra pounds" is a discomfort that afflicts many people. On the other hand, this is not always a "real problem" and sometimes refers to a pure aesthetic requirement. Especially in the latter circumstance, the extra pounds are never of great entity; strangely enough, women and men are united by the desire to lose an average of 5 or at most 10 kg. On the other hand, in other circumstances, weight loss becomes essential to improve the state of health, for example in cases of obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperuricemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. lose weight.
Evaluate Your Weight
5 kg too much: how to evaluate them?
Body mass index (BMI) or BMI
To evaluate if it is really necessary to lose 5 kg, or to establish if your weight is really excessive, you need to evaluate the so-called body mass index (BMI); alternatively, it is possible to rely on instrumental analyzes such as bioimpedance (BIA), which however often require expensive tools and an operator able to use them correctly.
BMI (BMI in English) is a method of estimating body composition, which takes into account two simple variables: height and weight. The BMI defines whether an adult human being (NOT an athlete) falls into one of the following categories: underweight, normal weight, overweight (non-pathological), obesity (pathological).
The formula for calculating the BMI is as follows: weight in kilograms divided by height, measured in meters, squared BMI = [Ps kg / St m2] (the online calculator in this article can also be used).
The result, that is the coefficient, is to be included in a specific evaluation ranking.
|Table 1 - Body Mass Index Assessment (BMI or BMI)|
|Underweight||Up to 18,4|
|Standard weight||18,5 - 24,9|
|Overweight||25,0 - 30,0|
As anticipated, the calculation of the BMI is a useful system in the "rough" evaluation of the state of nutrition. More specifically, it is a "spannometric" measure as it does not take into account parameters such as body proportions, the skeleton, the extent of muscle mass (which is why it is never applicable to athletes, especially those who practice sports force) etc. To compensate at least in part for these gaps, a further means of subdivision has been devised which exploits the discriminants of the body's constitution and morphology.
The body constitution evaluates the size of the skeleton measuring the circumference of the wrist NOT dominant (in centimeters, measured at the narrowest point) and contextualizing the result in a specific ranking.
|Table 2 - Assessment of body constitution based on the circumference of the wrist|
|> 15cm||Esile||> 1cm|
|> 16cm||Robust||> 18cm|
Body morphology, on the other hand, gives due importance to the relationship between height and wrist circumference in centimeters:
MRF CRP = [Satura in cm / Crf. polso in cm].
Also in this case, the measure must be included in a specific judgment scale.
|Table 3- Assessment of body morphology|
|> 9,9||Esile||> 9,6|
|> 10,9||Robust||> 10,4|
Physiological Desirable Body Mass Index (BMI FD)
Finally, to determine with greater specificity, in numerical terms, the NORMALITY of one's own weight, we can combine all three of these means of evaluation by comparing them in a single table of the desirable physiological body mass index (BMI FD):
|Table 4 - Physiological BMI desirable in respect of body constitution and body morphology|
|Highlight Longilineo||Highlight Normolineo||Highlight Brevilineo||Normal Longilineo||Normal Normal|
|Normal Brevilineo||Robust Long-limbed||Robust Normolineo||Robust Brevilineo|
So, summing it all up in a few steps, we could define the following points:
- Using a well-calibrated scale, measure the weight (in kg, not in lb) in the morning, on an empty stomach, after having fulfilled the physiological needs in the toilet
- Using a statimeter, getting help and respecting the guidelines (read How to Measure Height), measure your height (in cm)
- Using a metric tape, or a simple dressmaker's tape, measure the circumference of the NOT dominant wrist at the narrowest point (in cm)
- Establish, with the formula BMI = [Ps kg / St m2], the BMI and evaluate it with the appropriate table 1 above. If the BMI goes beyond the lower limit of overweight there is a very good chance that these 5 kg is "really" too much
- If it is included in the normal range, proceed by establishing, with respect to tables 2 and 3 above, the body constitution and body morphology [Height in cm / Crf. pulse in cm]
- Enter the value in table 4; if the BMI, although normal, is higher than the physiological desirable one, there is a good chance that these 5 kg are, even if only partially, too much.
Kg too much: more or less than 5?
In case of body mass index higher than desirable it is also possible to perform an INVERSE calculation to establish the actual amount of excess kg. With the values obtained above we will therefore have to perform two mathematical operations; one to establish the desirable physiological weight (P FD) and the other to determine the difference between the latter and the real weight (P R.). Therefore:
- P F.D = [BMI F.D. * St m2]
- Kg too much = [P R. - P FD].
How to lose weight
Assumptions of weight loss
Once we have ascertained that there is really a weight excess of 5 kg, to safeguard our state of health and prevent the worsening of this excess, we will have to plan a weight loss procedure.
In order to lose weight, it is known that the body must:
- Stops the action of fatty deposits
- Affect the reserves of fat for energy purposes.
Both of these effects are obtained through three fundamental measures:
- Taking in less energy than you consume
- Introduce the right percentages of energy nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins)
- Place the body in an adequate metabolic-hormonal condition, in which insulin levels must be kept as low and constant as possible.
Generally, to lose only 5 kg you can choose two ways:
- Fast but demanding: it consists in following a fairly extreme nutritional scheme, devoid of any dietary pleasure, which allows you to eliminate excess adipose in the shortest possible time. It is very debilitating, often based on particular methods such as the ketogenic diet, and does not lend itself to application in athletes. It very often results in the yo-yo effect, promoting the recovery of lost pounds plus interest. This is not recommended.
- Slow and progressive: it consists in following a balanced diet, preferably accompanied by motor activity, characterized by a caloric depletion of no more than 30% of the total energy. 5 kg can be disposed of in 5-9 weeks without compromising sporting efficiency and lifestyle. It is not debilitating and promotes nutrition education. It is the most advisable system.
System to Lose 5kg
How to lose 5 kg correctly? Obviously choosing the method of a balanced diet (point 2 of the previous paragraph). This system requires you to adjust your nutritional regimen to the following nutritional requirements.
- Low-calorie energy intake: corresponds to about 70% of the total norm-calorie energy, i.e. the one that allows you to remain stable with weight
- Balanced breakdown of energy macronutrients:
- lipids 25-30% (ratio of saturated / unsaturated fatty acids 1/4),
- proteins about 0,8-1,5 g / kg of physiological weight, of which at least 1/3 of high biological value (depending on the bibliographic source),
- carbohydrates for the remaining energy, with a maximum of 10-16% from simple sugars.
- Adequate intake of minerals, vitamins, fiber (about 30 g / day) and cholesterol (<300 mg / day): respecting the recommended rations, specific for age, sex and physiological or paraphysiological or pathological conditions.
Food composition of the diet
Wanting to avoid relying on a dietician, it is necessary to understand how to intervene on a "practical level" in one's diet. So, before starting to "file calories", let's try to understand if the current regime needs a management correction:
- Number of meals per day: they must be about 5; breakfast, two snacks (mid-morning and mid-afternoon), lunch and dinner.
- Energy intake of meals: the caloric amount of meals must also respect, more or less, this energy distribution: breakfast 15% of calories, snacks 5%, lunch 40% and dinner 35%.
- Frequency of consumption and portion of food: not all foods are consumed in the same way. To "get it right" you can refer to this table:
|Table 5 - approximate frequency of food consumption|
|Fundamental group of foods||Subgroup||Frequency||Portion|
|I basic food group: Meat, Eggs and Peach Products||Fresh, red and white meat||1-2 times a week||100 g|
|Preserved meat||3 times a month or 1 time a week||50 g|
|Fresh fish products||1-2 times a week||150 g|
|Preserved fishery products||3 times a month or 1 time a week||50 g|
|Eggs, whole or just yolk||1 and / or 2 times a week (depending on the portion)||50 and / or 100 g (depending on the frequency of consumption)|
|II fundamental group of foods: Milk and Derivatives||Milk and yogurt||Even 2-3 times a day||125 g / ml|
|Fresh cheeses||1-2 times a week - as a main course||100 g|
|Seasoned cheeses||1-2 times a week - as a dish; grated even every day but in adequate portion||50 g;
Grated about 5-10 g
|III fundamental group of foods: Starchy legumes||Fresh, frozen, dried-rehydrated, canned legumes||2-4 times a week, in first courses or as a side dish (instead of those below)||150 g|
|Dried vegetables||2-4 times a week, in first courses or as a side dish (instead of those above), based on the use of cereals and potatoes||50 g|
|IV fundamental group of foods: Cereals, Tubers and Derivatives||Pasta, wheat, rice, corn, spelled, barley, quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, semolina, polenta and other flours||3-4 times a week, in first courses, based on the use of legumes and potatoes||80 g|
|Bread||2-3 times a day||50 g|
|Potatoes||1-2 times a week, in first courses or as, based on the use of cereals and legumes||200 g|
|Breakfast cereals||In variable quantities based on the use of other foods for breakfast||30 g|
|V fundamental group of foods: Seasoning Oils and Fats||Vegetable oils, cold pressed, not subjected to processes of chemical extraction, fractionation, hydrogenation, etc.||2-4 times a day (both as a cooking base and as a condiment)||5-10 g|
|Butter||To a lesser extent than oils||5-10 g|
|Lard, tallow, margarines, hydrogenated or fractionated oils or extracts with solvents||Less possible||5-10 g|
|VI and VII fundamental group of foods: Fruits and Vegetables Rich in Vitamin A and Vitamin C||Fresh sweet fruits and vegetables||3-4 times a day. A portion of vegetables for lunch and one for dinner, plus possibly the one in the recipes for first courses; two portions of seasonal sweet fruit per day||150 g cooked or raw vegetables, stem, root, fruit; 150 g fruits|
|Preserved fruit: marmalade and jams, fruit juices, dehydrated fruit etc.||Jam and jams also every day; preferably with a low added sugar content. The rest is one-off||20 g for jams and marmalades. 200 ml fruit juices|
|Oilseeds||Almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, pine nuts, pistachios, macadamia, pecans, cashews, Brazil nuts etc.||Even every day in low portions; 2-3 times a week in larger portions (respecting the total amount of fat in the diet)||15-30 g|
|Alcohol||Red wine||From 0 to even 2 times a day||125ml|
|Calorie sweeteners||Sugar and Honey||0 to 2-3 times a day (respecting the total amount of sugar in the diet)||3-7 g of sugar; 10-20 g of honey|
|Sweet and savory snacks||Bread substitutes: rusks, crackers, breadsticks, friselle, taralli, etc. Soft sweet baked goods: brioches, croissants, croissants, etc. Cookies.||In variable quantities based on the use of bread and other foods for breakfast.||30 for bread substitutes. 50 g for soft baked goods. 30 g for cookies|
How to lose 5 kg correctly?
Now let's move on to the definitive fix. We suggest, once again, to start by changing the frequency of consumption and portion of foods as suggested in table 5.
Then, after having ascertained that the weight remains stable, it is essential to proportionally reduce the calories, changing food (but remaining within the specific group), modifying the quantity of fiber, the level of skimming of dairy products, the quantity of oil or just the portion. For example, as follows:
|Table 6 - Example of 30% calorie reduction|
|NORMAL DIET = 2350 kcal||HYPOCALORIC DIET 70% = 1640 kcal|
|Whole cow's milk||250 ml (1 cup)||Skimmed cow's milk||250 ml (1 cup)|
|Biscuits||40 g (8 biscuits)||Muesli||30 g (6 tablespoons)|
|Banana||200 g (1 banana grande)||Apple||150 g (1 apple)|
|Pasta with tomato sauce||Pasta with tomato sauce|
|Semolina pasta||100 g||Whole wheat semolina pasta||80 g|
|Tomato puree||100 g||Tomato puree||100 g|
|Grit||10 g (1 tablespoon)||Grit||5 g (1 tsp)|
|Boiled egg and boiled potatoes||Boiled egg and salad|
|Egg, whole||50 g||Egg, whole||50 g|
|Potatoes||200 g (about 1 potato)||Lettuce||70 g|
|Wheat bread||50 g (2 fat)||Whole wheat bread||50 g (2 fat)|
|Extravirgin olive oil||20 g (2 tablespoons)||Extravirgin olive oil||20 g (2 tablespoons)|
|Whole milk yogurt||125 g (1 jar)||Skimmed milk yogurt||125 g (1 jar)|
|Boiled rice||Lesse potato|
|White rice||90 g||Potato||200 g|
|Grilled pork and eggplant steak||Grilled chicken and eggplant steak|
|Pork loin||100 g||Chicken breast||100 g|
|Melanzane||200 g||Melanzane||200 g|
|Wheat bread||50 g||Whole wheat bread||50 g|
|Extravirgin olive oil||20 g||Extravirgin olive oil||20 g|
It is advisable to continue with the diet until the result is achieved (loss of 5kg), that is, for about a month and a half or two months.